Welcome to "Without Conscience"
Robert Hare's Web Site devoted to the study of Psychopathy


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Upcoming PCL-R Workshops:
  • October 7-8, 2021: WEBINAR

    MHS Acquires Darkstone Assets

    Toronto, ON, November 18, 2019

    Multi-Health Systems Inc. (MHS), a leading provider of outcome driven research, assessments, trainings, data analytics and software solutions, including the international gold standard for the diagnosis of psychopathy in adults, the PCL-R, is pleased to announce the acquisition of Darkstone Research Group’s assets. This purchase represents MHS’s commitment to provide customers with services and programming that promotes evidence-based best practices and improves compliance and outcomes in assessment, treatment, and monitoring.

    Founded by world renowned expert in psychopathy, Dr. Robert D. Hare, Darkstone Research Group is a forensic consulting and research company. They specialized in the development of procedures used for the assessment of psychopathy, and for training professionals in the use of these procedures.

    The purchase of Darkstone Research Group’s assets will see MHS delivering and authorizing all in-person and online PCL-R training programs, and developing standards for assessing psychopathy. Hazel Wheldon, CEO of MHS, is dedicated to providing solutions to the international criminal justice community that will ultimately help make the world a safer place. Wheldon says “we are happy to support clinicians who work with this important population. Further research and trainings on psychopathy will be developed to ensure clinicians are equipped with the necessary resources to effectively measure psychopathic personality.”

    Wheldon shares, “with the acquisition of Darkstone Research Group’s assets, we will be able to provide our customers with additional solutions to help them improve compliance and outcomes in assessment, treatment, and monitoring of psychopathy, leading to improved public safety and the rehabilitation of those who have offended.”

    About MHS

    MHS specializes in providing outcome driven research, trainings, and software solutions to mental health, correctional, education and corporate clients to support predicting and improving outcomes for individuals and organizations around the world. Dedicated to innovation, simplicity, and customer service, our team of international experts develops services and programming to promote evidence-based best practices and improve both compliance and outcomes in assessment, treatment, and monitoring.

    MHS strives to leverage their tools to reduce reoffending and produces many of the most innovative offerings to the public safety market including data analytics, assessments, trainings, knowledge sharing of peer-reviewed research, and assessment platforms. These solutions are rigorous in their science, highly functional, and available via a variety of different platforms.

    For More Information:
    Tammy Holwell, Manager of Public Safety
    Tel: U.S.A.: 1 (800) 456-3003 Ext. 269
    Canada: 1 (800) 268-6011 Ext. 269
    P.O. BOX 950, NORTH TONAWANDA NY USA 14120-0950
    (US) 1-800-456-3003 (CAN) 1-800-268-6011 (INTL) +1-416-492-2627

    Implications for Clinicians, Researchers, and Others

    Darkstone Retains its Role in Forensic Consulting and Research, and Maintains its Website

    MHS now holds the copyright for the PCL-R family of instruments. Please address requests for the use of excerpts, tables, and figures from these instruments to MHS, permissions@mhs.com. MHS also holds the rights to the Darkstone training materials. For information about PCL-R and related workshops and training, email Tammy Holwell.

    Robert Hare
    November 22, 2019

    The 2nd edition of Snakes in Suits is now available from HarperCollins.com!

    Important new research by Randy Salekin argues persuasively that, "Callous–unemotional traits have been incorporated into the DSM-5 and may be considered for the ICD-11. Despite the centrality of callous–unemotional traits, it is only one of three dimensions of child psychopathy. It is proposed that the grandiose–manipulative and daring–impulsive traits should be considered and potentially accepted as specifiers for conduct disorder in the DSM-5 and ICD-11." The full reference for this research is:

    Salekin, R. (2016). Psychopathy in childhood: why should we care about grandiose–manipulative and daring–impulsive traits? British Journal of Psychiatry, 209, 189-191. doi:10.1192/bjp.bp.115.179051. [Download PDF]

    Misattribution of PCL-R Authorship:

    Recently, more than 20 articles, chapters, theses, and presentations have used a variation of the following citation for the Hare PCL-R: Hare, R. D., & Vertommen, H. (1991). The Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised. Multi-Health Systems. In some cases reference is to the 2003 edition of the PCL-R, and in other cases the reference omits the location of the publisher. Vertommen is not a co-author of the PCL-R. He is senior author of the Dutch translation of the PCL-R.

    One author said the mistake was due to the use of an "automatic citation management software" program. If any reader of this note has used such a program and can help to determine the origin of this misattribution, please contact me. I would be most appreciative.

    The correct citation for the PCL-R is Hare, R. D. (2003). The Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised, 2nd edition. Toronto, ON: Multi-Health Systems.

    MHS Translations:

    To inquire about existing translations, to translate an MHS assessment, or to obtain permission to reproduce MHS copyrighted material please contact permissions@mhs.com for further information.

  • In the Webometrics Ranking of World Universities (2019), Dr. Hare is ranked #2107 among the world's 3436 most highly cited researchers (h-index>100) according to their Google Scholar Citations public profiles. His h-index was 113, the number of publications with at least 113 citations each (total citations = 62,717). http://www.webometrics.info/en/hlargerthan100

    "The data for this 2019 edition [were] collected during the second week of September 2019 of a BETA list of the public profiles of the most highly cited researchers (h-index larger than 100) according to their declared presence in the Google Scholar Citations database. The list...includes both living and deceased authors."

    Google Scholar February 2020
    Total citations = 62,717; h-index = 113; i10 index = 222
    Citations since 2015 = 18,941; h-index = 62; i10 index = 166

  • Michael McCaul says 1 in 100 people is a sociopath. From Politifact Texas by W. Gardner Selby, March 2018.

  • Now Available! the Hare Self-Report Psychopathy Scale (SRP-4); Published by Multi-Health Systems.

  • Robert Hare was named to the Order of Canada, one of Canada's highest civilian honours. The Order of Canada recognizes a lifetime of achievement and contribution to society, and was presented by the Governor General of Canada.

  • This Charming Psychopath: How to Spot Social Predators Before They Attack - An excerpt from Dr. Hare's Without Conscience, published by Psychology Today.

  • Aftermath: Surviving Psychopathy: an organization established to be of assistance to people who are or have been in relationships with individuals with psychopathic features.

  • Society for the Scientific Study of Psychopathy (SSSP): a non-profit, professional organization which was developed to promote the conduct and communication of scientific research in the field of psychopathy and to encourage education and training in those fields of science that contribute to research in psychopathy.

Special Links for Psychopathy and Law Enforcement:

Featured Manuals, Books and Articles:

Salina, J. R., León Mayer, E., Folino, J. O., & Hare, R. D. (2019). Psicopatía en mujeres privadas de libertad en Chile (Psychopathy in female inmates in Chile). VERTEX, Argentine Journal of Psychiatry, 30, 301-306. [Download PDF]

López-Romero, L., Romero, E., Colins, O. F., Andershed, H., Hare, R. D., and Salekin, R. T. (2019). Proposed specifiers for Conduct Disorder (PSCD): Preliminary validation of the Parent Version in a Spanish sample of preschoolers. Psychological Assessment, 31, 1357-1367. 0.1037/pas0000759 [Download PDF]

Meloy, J. R., Book, A., Hosker-Field, A., Methot-Jones, T., & Roters, J. (2018). Social, sexual, and violent predation: Are psychopathic traits evolutionarily adaptive? Violence and Gender, 5(3), 153-165. doi:10.1089/vio.2018.0012 [Download PDF]

Lilienfeld, S. O., Watts, A. L., Smith, S. F., Patrick, C. J., & Hare, R. D. (2018, August 6). Hervey Cleckley (1903–1984): Contributions to the study of psychopathy. Personality Disorders: Theory, Research, and Treatment. Advance online publication. [Download PDF]

Guay, J.-P., Knight, R. A., Ruscio, J., & Hare, R. D. (2018). A taxometric investigation of psychopathy in women. Psychiatry Research, 261, 565-573.

Krstic, S., Neumann, C. S., Roy, S., Robertson, C., Knight, R. A., & Hare, R. D. (2017). Using latent variable- and person-centered approaches to examine the role of psychopathic traits in sex offenders. Personality Disorders: Theory, Research, and Treatment. Accepted for publication. [Download PDF]

Hare, R. D. (2017). Commentary: A person-centered approach to research on the nature and meaning of psychopath-brain relations. Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging, 2(2), 111-112. doi:10.1016/j.bpsc.2017.01.007 [Download PDF]

Hare, R. D. (2016). Psychopathy, the PCL-R, and criminal Justice: Some new findings and current issues. Canadian Psychology, 57(1), 21-34. doi:10.1037/cap0000041 [Download PDF]

Gacono, C. B. (Ed.). (2016). The clinical and forensic assessment of psychopathy: A practitioner's guide (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Routledge.

Hare, R. D. (2016). Forward. In C. B. Gacono (Ed.), The clinical and forensic assessment of psychopathy: A practitioner's guide (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Routledge. [Download PDF]

Patrick, C. J. (Ed.). (2018). Handbook of psychopathy, 2nd edition. New York, NY: Guilford Press.

Glenn, A. L., & Raine, A. (2014). Psychopathy: An introduction to biological findings and their implications. New York, NY: NYU Press.

Haycock, D. (2014). Murderous minds. New York, NY: Pegasus Books.

Kiehl, K. (2014). The psychopath whisperer. New York, NY: Crown Publishing.

Hare, R. D. (2013). Forward. In K. A. Kiehl & W. P. Sinnott-Armstrong (Eds.), Handbook on psychopathy and law. New York, NY: Oxford University Press. [Download PDF]

Kiehl, K. A., & Sinnott-Armstrong, W. P. (Eds.). (2013). Handbook on psychopathy and law. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

FBI. (2012). FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin: Special issue on psychopathy. Quantico, VA: Author. [full text]

Häkkänen-Nyholm, H., & Nyholm, J.-O. (Eds.). (2012). Psychopathy and law: A practitioner's guide. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.

Hare, R. D. (2012). Introduction to the special issue: Focus on psychopathy. FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, July. Available online at https://leb.fbi.gov/file-repository/archives/leb-july-2012.pdf/view

Lawrence, P. R. (2010). Driven to lead: Good, bad, and misguided leadership. New York, NY: Wiley.

Malatesti, L., & McMillan, J. (Eds.). (2010). Responsibility and psychopathy: Interfacing law, psychiatry and philosophy. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

Salekin, R. T., & Lynam, D. R. (Eds.) (2010). Handbook of child and adolescent psychopathy. New York, NY: Guilford Press.

Felthous, A. R., & Saß, H. (Eds.). (2008). International handbook on psychopathic disorders and the law. Chichester, UK: Wiley.

Hare, R. D., & Neumann, C. S. (2008). Psychopathy as a clinical and empirical construct. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 4, 217-246. doi: 10.1146/annurev.clinpsy.3.022806.091452 [Download PDF]

St-Yves, M., & Tanguay, M. (2008). Psychology of criminal investigation: The search for the truth. Toronto, ON: Carswell. (Includes a chapter by Dr. M. Logan & Dr. R. D. Hare entitled "Criminal psychopathy: An introduction for police".)

Hervé, H., & Yuille, J. (Eds.). (2007). The psychopath: Theory, research, and practice. Mahwah, NJ: Routledge.

Babiak, P., & Hare, R. D. (2006). Snakes in suits: When psychopaths go to work. New York, NY: ReganBooks.

Patrick, C. J. (Ed.). (2006). Handbook of psychopathy. New York, NY: Guilford Press.

Forth, A. E., Kosson, D. & Hare, R. D. (2003). The Hare PCL: Youth Version. Toronto, ON: Multi-Health Systems.

Hare, R. D. (2003). Hare PCL-R 2nd Edition. Toronto, ON: Multi-Health Systems.

    Available translations of the PCL-R (1991 version):
    Bulgarian - Available from MHS via license to copy only
    Dutch (Manual and forms) - Available from Pearson Netherlands (no longer available)
    Finnish - Available from MHS via license to copy only
    French (PQ) (all Forms and Manuals) - Available from MHS - 1-800-456-3003
    Korean(QuikScore Form, Interview Guide) - Available from MHS via license to copy only
    Portuguese (Brazil) (Manual, Interview Guide, Percentile Tables) - Available from MHS (1-800-456-3003) or Casa do Psicólogo
    Spanish (Chile) (Interview guide, rating criteria) - Available MHS via license to copy only
    Spanish (Euro) (Interview guide, score sheet) - Available MHS via license to copy only

    Available translations of the PCL-R 2nd Edition:
    Danish (Interview guide, scoring booklet and scoring guide) - Available from Hogrefe Psykologisk Forlag
    German (Manual, Interview Guide, Score Sheet) - Available from Testzentrale
    Hebrew (all forms and Manual) - Available from PsychTech Ltd
    Italian (Manual, Item Booklet, Interview Schedule, QuikScore form) - Available from Giunti O.S.
    Japanese - Available from Kaneko Shobo Co. Ltd.
    Korean - Available from Hakjisa Publisher
    Spanish - Available from Tea Ediciones
    Swedish (all forms) - Available from PSYKOLOGIFORLAGET AB or email info@hogrefe.se

Frick, P., & Hare, R. D. (2001). The Antisocial Processes Screening Device. Toronto, ON: Multi-Health Systems.

Meloy, J. R. (Ed.). (2001). The mark of Cain: Psychoanalytic insight and the psychopath. Hillsdale, NJ: Analytic Press. Republished in 2014 by Routledge.

Hare, R. D., & Hervé, H. (1999). The Hare P-Scan Research Version. Toronto, ON: Multi-Health Systems.

Hare, R. D. (1998). Without conscience: The disturbing world of the psychopaths among us. New York, NY: Guilford Press.
    Translations of Without Conscience:
    Chinese Complex

Hart, S. D., Cox, D. N., & Hare, R. D. (1995). Manual for the Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version (PCL:SV). Toronto, ON: Multi-Health Systems.

Meloy, J. R. (1988). The psychopathic mind: Origins, dynamics, and treatment. Lanham, MD: Jason Aronson, Inc.